Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are one group of drugs that inhibit gastric acid secretion by binding irreversibly to the gastric proton pump to the gastric proton pump. This paper aimed to review the impact of PPIs on kidney function and structure by presenting the updated information in this regard. In this review, we summarize in electronic databases including Google Scholar, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus and EBSCO during the period of 1980 to 2017 by using the following search terms; proton-pump inhibitors, kidney injury, renal diseases, adverse events of proton-pump inhibitors, acute interstitial nephritis, renal injury and chronic kidney disease. The PPIs are known as one group of drugs that well-tolerated in healthy subjects and serious harms are rare. There are reports associated with adverse effects of PPIs administration in long-term such as; increasing the incident risk of kidney injury, hyper-secretion of gastric acid after their withdrawal, bone fracture, decreased levels of blood magnesium, interaction with metabolism of antiplatelet agents, increased risk of enteric infections and community-acquired pneumonia.